Bessie Smith

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Bessie Smith
Bessie Smith (1936) by Carl Van Vechten.jpg
Smith in 1936 (photograph by Carl Van Vechten)
Background information
Birth nameBessie Smith
Also known asThe Empress of the Blues
Born(1894-04-15)April 15, 1894
Chattanooga, Tennessee, U.S.
DiedSeptember 26, 1937(1937-09-26) (aged 43)
Clarksdale, Mississippi, U.S.
Genres
Occupation(s)Singer, actress
InstrumentsVocals
Years active1912–37
LabelsColumbia
Associated acts

Bessie Smith (April 15, 1894 – September 26, 1937) was an American blues singer. Nicknamed the Empress of the Blues, she was the most popular female blues singer of the 1920s and 1930s.[1] She is often regarded as one of the greatest singers of her era and was a major influence on fellow blues singers, as well as jazz vocalists.[2]

Life[edit]

Portrait of Bessie Smith, 1936
Smith in 1936

The 1900 census indicates that her family reported that Bessie Smith was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, in July 1892.[3][4] The 1910 census gives her age as 16,[5] and a birth date of April 15, 1894 appears on subsequent documents and was observed as her birthday by the Smith family. The 1870 and 1880 censuses report three older half-siblings, but later interviews with Smith's family and contemporaries contain no mention of them among her siblings.

She was the daughter of Laura (born Owens) and William Smith, a laborer and part-time Baptist preacher (he was listed in the 1870 census as a "minister of the gospel", in Moulton, Lawrence County, Alabama). He died while his daughter was too young to remember him. By the time Bessie was nine, her mother and a brother had also died. Her older sister Viola took charge of caring for her siblings.[6]

To earn money for their impoverished household, Smith and her brother Andrew began busking on the streets of Chattanooga. She sang and danced as he played the guitar. Their favorite location was in front of the White Elephant Saloon at Thirteenth and Elm streets, in the heart of the city's African-American community.

In 1904, her oldest brother Clarence left home, joining a small traveling troupe owned by Moses Stokes. "If Bessie had been old enough, she would have gone with him," said Clarence's widow, Maud. "That's why he left without telling her, but Clarence told me she was ready, even then. Of course, she was only a child."[7]

In 1912, Clarence returned to Chattanooga with the Stokes troupe and arranged an audition for his sister with the troupe managers, Lonnie and Cora Fisher. She was hired as a dancer rather than a singer, because the company already included the well-known singer Ma Rainey. Smith eventually moved on to performing in various chorus lines, making the "81" Theater in Atlanta her home base. She also performed in shows on the black-owned (Theater Owners Booking Association) (T.O.B.A.) circuit and became its biggest star after she signed a recording contract with Columbia Records.

Smith's recording career began in 1923.[8] Despite her success, neither she nor her music was accepted in all circles. She once auditioned for Black Swan records (W. E. B. Du Bois was on its board of directors) and was dismissed because she was considered too rough, she supposedly stopped singing to spit.[9] In fact, even her admirers, white and black, considered her a "rough" (i.e., working class or even "low class") woman. She was then living in Philadelphia, when she met Jack Gee, a security guard, whom she married on June 7, 1923, just as her first record was being released. During the marriage Smith became the highest-paid black entertainer of the day, heading her own shows, which sometimes featured as many as 40 troupers, and touring in her own custom-built railroad car. Their marriage was stormy with infidelity on both sides, including numerous female lovers for Bessie.[10] Gee was impressed by the money but never adjusted to show business life or to Smith's bisexuality. In 1929, when she learned of his affair with another singer, Gertrude Saunders, Smith ended the relationship, although neither of them sought a divorce.

Smith later entered a common-law marriage with an old friend, Richard Morgan, who was Lionel Hampton's uncle. She stayed with him until her death.[6]

Career[edit]

Portrait of Smith by Carl Van Vechten

All contemporary accounts indicate that while Rainey did not teach Smith to sing, she probably helped her develop a stage presence.[11] Smith began forming her own act around 1913, at Atlanta's "81" Theater. By 1920, she had established a reputation in the South and along the East Coast.

In 1920, sales of over 100,000 copies of "Crazy Blues," recorded for Okeh Records by the singer Mamie Smith (no relation), pointed to a new market. The recording industry had not directed its product to black people, but the success of the record led to a search for female blues singers. Bessie Smith was signed to Columbia Records in 1923 by Frank Walker, a talent agent who had seen her perform years earlier. Her first session for Columbia was on February 15, 1923; it was engineered by Dan Hornsby. For most of 1923, her records were issued on Columbia's regular A-series. When the company established a "race records" series, Smith's "Cemetery Blues" (September 26, 1923) was the first issued.

Both sides of her first record, "Downhearted Blues" backed with "Gulf Coast Blues", were hits (an earlier recording of "Downhearted Blues" by its co-writer Alberta Hunter had previously been released by Paramount Records).[12] Smith became a headliner on the T.O.B.A. circuit and rose to become its top attraction in the 1920s.[13] Working a heavy theater schedule during the winter and performing in tent shows the rest of the year (eventually traveling in her own railroad car), Smith became the highest-paid black entertainer of her day.[14] Columbia nicknamed her "Queen of the Blues," but the press soon upgraded her title to "Empress of the Blues". Smith's music stressed independence, fearlessness, and sexual freedom, implicitly arguing that working-class women did not have to alter their behavior to be worthy of respect.[9]

Smith had a strong contralto voice,[15] which recorded well from her first session, which was conducted when recordings were made acoustically. The advent of electrical recording made the power of her voice even more evident. Her first electrical recording was "Cake Walking Babies [From Home]", recorded on May 5, 1925.[16] Smith also benefited from the new technology of radio broadcasting, even on stations in the segregated South. For example, after giving a concert to a white-only audience at a theater in Memphis, Tennessee, in October 1923, she performed a late-night concert on station WMC, which was well received by the radio audience.[17]

She made 160 recordings for Columbia, often accompanied by the finest musicians of the day, notably Louis Armstrong, Coleman Hawkins, Fletcher Henderson, James P. Johnson, Joe Smith, and Charlie Green.

Themes in her music[edit]

Songs like Jail House Blues, Work House Blues, Prison Blues, Sing Sing Prison Blues and Send Me to the 'Lectric Chair dealt critically with important issues of the day like the chain gang, the convict lease system and capital punishment. Poor Man's Blues and Washwoman's Blues are widely considered to be an early form of African American protest music.[18]

What becomes evident after listening to her music and studying her lyrics is that Smith emphasized and channeled a subculture within the African American working class. Additionally, she incorporated commentary on social issues like poverty, intra-racial conflict, and female sexuality into her lyrics. Her lyrical sincerity and public behavior were not widely accepted as appropriate expressions for African American women; therefore, her work was often written off as distasteful or unseemly, rather than as an accurate representation of the African-American experience. Her work challenged elitist norms by encouraging working-class women to embrace their right to drink, party, and satisfy their sexual needs as a means of coping with stress and dissatisfaction in their daily lives. Smith advocated for a wider vision of African-American womanhood beyond domesticity, piety, and conformity; she sought empowerment and happiness through independence, sassiness, and sexual freedom.[9] Although Smith was a voice for many minority groups and one of the most gifted blues performers of her time, the themes in her music were precocious, which led to many believing that her work was undeserving of serious recognition.

Broadway[edit]

Smith's career was cut short by the Great Depression, which nearly put the recording industry out of business, and the advent of sound in film, which spelled the end of vaudeville. She never stopped performing, however. The days of elaborate vaudeville shows were over, but Smith continued touring and occasionally sang in clubs. In 1929, she appeared in a Broadway musical, Pansy. The play was a flop; top critics said she was its only asset.

Film[edit]

St. Louis Blues, Smith's only film,1929

In 1929, Smith made her only film appearance, starring in a two-reeler, St. Louis Blues, based on W. C. Handy's song of the same name. In the film, directed by Dudley Murphy and shot in Astoria, Queens, she sings the title song accompanied by members of Fletcher Henderson's orchestra, the Hall Johnson Choir, the pianist James P. Johnson and a string section—a musical environment radically different from that of any of her recordings.

Swing era[edit]

In 1933, John Hammond, who also mentored Billie Holiday, asked Smith to record four sides for Okeh (which had been acquired by Columbia Records in 1925). He claimed to have found her in semi-obscurity, working as a hostess in a speakeasy on Ridge Avenue in Philadelphia.[19] Smith worked at Art's Cafe on Ridge Avenue, but not as a hostess and not until the summer of 1936. In 1933, when she made the Okeh sides, she was still touring. Hammond was known for his selective memory and gratuitous embellishments.[20]

Smith was paid a non-royalty fee of $37.50 for each selection on these Okeh sides, which were her last recordings. Made on November 24, 1933, they serve as a hint of the transformation she made in her performances as she shifted her blues artistry into something that fit the swing era. The relatively modern accompaniment is notable. The band included such swing era musicians as the trombonist Jack Teagarden, the trumpeter Frankie Newton, the tenor saxophonist Chu Berry, the pianist Buck Washington, the guitarist Bobby Johnson, and the bassist Billy Taylor. Benny Goodman, who happened to be recording with Ethel Waters in the adjoining studio, dropped by and is barely audible on one selection. Hammond was not entirely pleased with the results, preferring to have Smith revisit her old blues sound. "Take Me for a Buggy Ride" and "Gimme a Pigfoot (And a Bottle of Beer)", both written by Wesley Wilson, were among her most popular recordings.[6]

Death[edit]

On September 26, 1937, Smith was critically injured in a car crash on U.S. Route 61 between Memphis, Tennessee and Clarksdale, Mississippi. Her lover, Richard Morgan, was driving, and misjudged the speed of a slow-moving truck ahead of him. Tire marks at the scene suggested that Morgan tried to avoid the truck by driving around its left side, but he hit the rear of the truck side-on at high speed. The tailgate of the truck sheared off the wooden roof of Smith's old Packard. Smith, who was in the passenger seat, probably with her right arm or elbow out the window, took the full brunt of the impact. Morgan escaped without injuries.

The first person on the scene was a Memphis surgeon, Dr. Hugh Smith (no relation). In the early 1970s, Hugh Smith gave a detailed account of his experience to Bessie's biographer Chris Albertson. This is the most reliable eyewitness testimony about the events surrounding her death.

Arriving at the scene, Hugh Smith examined Smith, who was lying in the middle of the road with obviously severe injuries. He estimated she had lost about a half pint of blood, and immediately noted a major traumatic injury: her right arm was almost completely severed at the elbow.[21] He stated that this injury alone did not cause her death. Though the light was poor, he observed only minor head injuries. He attributed her death to extensive and severe crush injuries to the entire right side of her body, consistent with a sideswipe collision.[22]

Henry Broughton (a fishing partner of Dr. Smith's) helped him move Bessie Smith to the shoulder of the road. Dr. Smith dressed her arm injury with a clean handkerchief and asked Broughton to go to a house about 500 feet off the road to call an ambulance.

By the time Broughton returned, about 25 minutes later, Bessie Smith was in shock. Time passed with no sign of the ambulance, so Hugh Smith suggested that they take her into Clarksdale in his car. He and Broughton had almost finished clearing the back seat when they heard the sound of a car approaching at high speed. Smith flashed his lights in warning, but the oncoming car failed to stop and plowed into his car at full speed. It sent his car careening into Bessie Smith's overturned Packard, completely wrecking it. The oncoming car ricocheted off Hugh Smith's car into the ditch on the right, barely missing Broughton and Bessie Smith.[23]

The young couple in the new car did not have life-threatening injuries. Two ambulances then arrived from Clarksdale—one from the black hospital, summoned by Broughton, the other from the white hospital, acting on a report from the truck driver, who had not seen the accident victims.

Bessie Smith was taken to the G. T. Thomas Afro-American Hospital in Clarksdale, where her right arm was amputated. She died that morning without regaining consciousness. After her death, an often repeated but now discredited story emerged that she died because a whites-only hospital in Clarksdale refuse to admit her. The jazz writer and producer John Hammond gave this account in an article in the November 1937 issue of Down Beat magazine. The circumstances of Smith's death and the rumor promoted by Hammond formed the basis for Edward Albee's 1959 one-act play The Death of Bessie Smith.[24]

"The Bessie Smith ambulance would not have gone to a white hospital; you can forget that," Hugh Smith told Albertson. "Down in the Deep South Cotton Belt, no ambulance driver, or white driver, would even have thought of putting a colored person off in a hospital for white folks."[25]

Smith's death certificate

Smith's funeral was held in Philadelphia a little over a week later, on October 4, 1937. Her body was originally laid out at Upshur's funeral home. As word of her death spread through Philadelphia's black community, the body had to be moved to the O.V. Catto Elks Lodge to accommodate the estimated 10,000 mourners who filed past her coffin on Sunday, October 3.[26] Contemporary newspapers reported that her funeral was attended by about seven thousand people. Far fewer mourners attended the burial at Mount Lawn Cemetery, in nearby Sharon Hill.[27] Gee thwarted all efforts to purchase a stone for his estranged wife, once or twice pocketing money raised for that purpose.[28]

Unmarked grave[edit]

Smith's grave was unmarked until a tombstone was erected on August 7, 1970, paid for by the singer Janis Joplin and Juanita Green, who as a child had done housework for Smith.[29]

Dory Previn wrote a song about Joplin and the tombstone, "Stone for Bessie Smith", for her album Mythical Kings and Iguanas.

The Afro-American Hospital, now the Riverside Hotel, was the site of the dedication of the fourth historical marker on the Mississippi Blues Trail.[30]

Hit records[edit]

Year Single US
Pop
[31][nb 1]
1923 "Downhearted Blues" 1
"Gulf Coast Blues" 5
"Aggravatin' Papa" 12
"Baby Won't You Please Come Home" 6
"T'ain't Nobody's Biz-Ness if I Do" 9
1925 "The St. Louis Blues" 3
"Careless Love Blues" 5
"I Ain't Gonna Play No Second Fiddle" 8
1926 "I Ain't Got Nobody" 8
"Lost Your Head Blues" 5
1927 "After You've Gone" 7
"Alexander's Ragtime Band" 17
1928 "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" 13
"Empty Bed Blues" 20
1929 "Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out" 15

78 RPM Singles - Columbia Records

A-3844 GULF COAST BLUES 2/16/2023
A-3844 DOWN HEARTED BLUES 2/16/2023
A-3877 AGGRAVATIN' PAPA 4/11/2023
A-3877 BEALE STREET MAMA 4/11/2023
A-3888 BABY WON'T YOU PLEASE COME HOME 4/11/2023
A-3888 OH DADDY BLUES 4/11/2023
A-3898 KEEPS ON A RAININ ALL TIME 2/16/2023
A-3898 TAIN'T NOBODY'S BIZNESS IF I DO 4/26/2023
A-3900 OUTSIDE OF THAT 4/30/2023
A-3900 MAMA'S GOT THE BLUES 4/30/2023
A-3936 BLEEDING HEARTED BLUES 6/14/2023
A-3936 MIDNIGHT BLUES 6/15/2023
A-3939 YODELING BLUES 6/14/2023
A-3939 LADY LUCK BLUES 6/14/2023
A-3942 IF YOU DON'T, I KNOW WHO WILL 6/21/2023
A-3942 NOBODY IN TOWN CAN BAKE A JELLY ROLL LIKE MY MAN 6/22/2023
A-4001 JAIL HOUSE BLUES 9/21/2023
A-4001 GRAVEYARD DREAM BLUES 9/26/2023
13000D WHOA, TILLIE, TAKE YOUR TIME 10/24/2023
13000D MY SWEETIE WENT AWAY 10/24/2023
13001D CEMETERY BLUES 9/26/2023
13001D ANY WOMAN'S BLUES 10/16/2023
13005D ST LOUIS GAL 9/24/2023
13005D SAM JONES' BLUES 9/24/2023
13007D I'M GOING BACK TO MY USED TO BE 10/4/2023
13007D FAR AWAY BLUES 10/4/2023
14000D MISTREATIN' DADDY 12/4/2023
14000D CHICAGO BOUND BLUES 12/4/2023
14005D FROSTY MORNIN' BLUES 1/8/2024
14005D EASY COME EASY GO BLUES 1/10/2024
14010D EAVESDROPPER BLUES 1/9/2024
14010D HAUNTED HOUSE BLUES 1/9/2024
14010D EAVESDROPPER BLUES 1/9/2024
14010D HAUNTED HOUSE BLUES 1/9/2024
14018D BOWEAVIL BLUES 4/7/2024
14018D MOONSHINE BLUES 4/9/2024
14020D SORROWFUL BLUES 4/4/2024
14020D ROCKING CHAIR BLUES 4/4/2024
14023D FRANKIE BLUES 4/8/2024
14023D HATEFUL BLUES 4/8/2024
14025D PINCHBACKS, TAKE 'EM AWAY 4/4/2024
14025D TICKET AGENT EASY YOUR WINDOW DOWN 4/5/2024
14031D LOUISIANA LOW DOWN BLUES 7/22/2024
14031D MOUNTAIN TOP BLUES 7/22/2024
14032D HOUSE RENT BLUES 7/23/2024
14032D WORK HOUSE BLUES 7/23/2024
14037D RAINY WEATHER BLUES 8/8/2024
14037D SALT WATER BLUES 7/31/2024
14042D BYE BYE BLUES 9/26/2024
14042D WEEPING WILLOW BLUES 9/26/2024
14051D DYING GAMBLER'S BLUES 12/6/2024
14051D SING SING PRISON BLUES 12/6/2024
14052D FOLLOW THE DEAL ON DOWN 12/4/2024
14052D SINFUL BLUES 11/11/2024
14056D RECKLESS BLUES 1/14/2025
14056D SOBBIN' HEARTED BLUES 1/14/2025
14060D LOVE ME DADDY BLUES 12/12/2024
14060D WOMAN'S TROUBLE BLUES 12/12/2024
14064D COLD IN HAND BLUES 1/14/2025
14064D ST LOUIS BLUES 1/14/2025
14075D YELLOW DOG BLUES 5/6/2025
14075D SOFT PEDAL BLUES 5/14/2025
14079D DIXIE FLYER BLUES 5/15/2025
14079D YOU'VE BEEN A GOOD OLE WAGON 1/14/2025
14083D CARELESS LOVE 5/26/2025
14083D HE'S GONE BLUES 6/23/2025
14083D CARELESS LOVE 5/26/2025
14083D HE'S GONE BLUES 6/23/2025
14090D I AIN'T GOIN' TO PLAY NO SECOND FIDDLE 5/27/2025
14090D NASHVILLE WOMEN'S BLUES 5/27/2025
14095D I AIN'T GOT NOBODY 8/19/2025
14095D J.C.HOLMES BLUES 5/27/2025
14098D MY MAN BLUES 9/1/2025
14098D NOBODY'S BLUES BUT MINE 8/19/2025
14109D FLORIDA BOUND BLUES 11/17/2025
14109D NEW GULF COAST BLUES 11/17/2025
14115D I'VE BEEN MISTREATED AND I DON'T LIKE IT 11/18/2025
14115D RED MOUNTAIN BLUES 11/20/2025
14123D LONESOME DESERT BLUES 12/9/2025
14123D GOLDEN RULE BLUES 11/20/2025
14129D WHAT'S THE MATTER NOW? 3/5/2026
14129D I WANT EVERY BIT OF IT 3/5/2026
14133D JAZZBO BROWN FROM MEMPHIS TOWN 3/18/2026
14133D SQUEEZE ME 3/5/2026
14137D HARD DRIVING PAPA 05/40/26
14137D MONEY BLUES 5/4/2026
14147D BABY DOLL 5/4/2026
14147D THEM HAS BEEN BLUES 3/5/2026
14158D LOST YOUR HEAD BLUES 5/4/2026
14158D GIN HOUSE BLUES 3/18/2026
14172D ONE AND TWO BLUES 10/26/2026
14172D HONEY MAN BLUES 10/25/2026
14179D HARD TIME BLUES 10/25/2026
14179D YOUNG WOMAN'S BLUES 10/26/2026
14195D BACK WATER BLUES 2/17/2027
14195D PREACHIN' THE BLUES 2/17/2027
14197D MUDDY WATER 3/2/2027
14197D AFTER YOU'VE GONE 3/2/2027
14209D SEND ME TO THE 'LECTRIC CHAIR 3/3/2027
14209D THEM'S GRAVEYARD WORDS 3/3/2027
14219D THERE'LL BE A HOT TIME IN OLD TOWN TONIGHT 3/2/2027
14219D ALEXANDER'S RAGTIME BAND 3/2/2027
14232D TROMBONE CHOLLY 3/3/2027
14232D LOCK AND KEY BLUES 4/1/2027
14250D A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND 9/27/2027
14250D MEAN OLD BED BUG BLUES 9/27/2027
14260D SWEET MISTREATER 4/1/2027
14260D HOMELESS BLUES 9/28/2027
14273D DYIN' BY THE HOUR 10/27/2027
14273D FOOLISH MAN BLUES 10/27/2027
14292D I USED TO BE YOUR SWEET MAMA 2/9/2028
14292D THINKING BLUES 2/9/2028
14304D I'D RATHER BE DEAD AND BURIED IN MY GRAVE 6/16/2028
14304D PICKPOCKET BLUES 2/9/2028
14312D EMPTY BED BLUES pt1 3/20/2028
14312D EMPTY BED BLUES pt2 3/20/2028
14324D PUT IT RIGHT HERE 3/20/2028
14324D SPIDER MAN BLUES 3/19/2028
14338D IT WON'T BE YOU 2/12/2028
14338D STANDIN' IN THE RAIN BLUES 2/12/2028
14354D DEVIL'S GONNA GIT YOU 8/24/2028
14354D YES INDEED HE DO 8/24/2028
14375D WASHWOMAN'S BLUES 8/24/2028
14375D PLEASE HELP ME GET HIM OFF MY MIND 8/24/2028
14384D ME AND MY GIN 8/25/2028
14384D SLOW AND EASY MAN 8/24/2028
14399D POOR MAN'S BLUES 8/24/2028
14399D YOU OUGHT TO BE ASHAMED 8/24/2028
14427D YOU'VE GOT TO GIVE ME SOME 5/8/2029
14427D I'M WILD ABOUT THAT THING 5/8/2029
14435D MY KITCHEN MAN 5/8/2029
14435D I'VE GOT WHAT IT TAKES 5/15/2029
14451D NOBODY KNOWS YOU WHEN YOU'RE DOWN AND OUT 5/15/2029
14451D TAKE IT RIGHT BACK 7/25/2029
14464D IT MAKES MY LOVE COME DOWN 8/20/2029
14464D HE'S GOT ME GOIN' 8/20/2029
14476D DIRTY NO GOODER'S BLUES 10/1/2029
14476D WASTED LIFE BLUES 10/1/2029
14487D DON'T CRY BABY 10/11/2029
14487D YOU DON'T UNDERSTAND 10/11/2029
14516D NEW ORLEANS HOP SCOP BLUES 3/27/1930
14516D KEEP IT TO YOURSELF 3/27/1930
14527D BLUE SPIRIT BLUES 10/11/2029
14527D WORN OUT PAPA BLUES 10/11/2029
14538D MOAN MOURNERS 6/9/1930
14538D ON REVIVAL DAY 6/9/1930
14554D HUSTLIN' DAN 7/22/1930
14554D BLACK MOUNTAIN BLUES 7/22/1930
14569D HOT SPRINGS BLUES 3/3/2027
14569D LOOKIN' FOR MY MAN BLUES 9/28/2027
14611D IN THE HOUSE BLUES 6/11/1931
14611D BLUE BLUES 6/11/1931
14634D SAFETY MAMA 11/20/1931
14634D NEED A LITTLE SUGAR IN MY BOWL 11/20/1931
14663D LONG OLD ROAD 6/11/1931
14663D SHIPWRECK BLUES 6/11/1931

78 RPM Singles - Okeh Records

8945 I'M DOWN IN THE DUMPS 11/24/1933
8945 DO YOUR DUTY 11/24/1933
8949 TAKE ME FOR A BUGGY RIDE 11/24/1933
8949 GIMME A PIGFOOT 11/24/1933

Selected awards and recognition[edit]

Grammy Hall of Fame[edit]

Three recordings by Smith were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, an award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least 25 years old and that have "qualitative or historical significance".

Bessie Smith: Grammy Hall of Fame Award[33]
Year Recorded Title Genre Label Year Inducted
1923 "Downhearted Blues" Blues (single) Columbia 2006
1925 "St. Louis Blues" Jazz (single) Columbia 1993
1928 "Empty Bed Blues" Blues (single) Columbia 1983

National Recording Registry[edit]

In 2002, Smith's recording of "Downhearted Blues" was included in the National Recording Registry by the National Recording Preservation Board of the Library of Congress.[34] The board annually selects recordings that are "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[35]

"Downhearted Blues" was included in the list of Songs of the Century by the Recording Industry of America and the National Endowment for the Arts in 2001. It is in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as one of the 500 songs that shaped rock 'n' roll.[36]

Inductions[edit]

Year Inducted Category Notes
2008 Nesuhi Ertegun Jazz Hall of Fame Jazz at Lincoln Center, New York
1989 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
1989 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame "Early influences"
1981 Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame
1980 Blues Hall of Fame

In 1984, Smith was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.[37]

U.S. postage stamp[edit]

The U.S. Postal Service issued a 29-cent commemorative postage stamp honoring Smith in 1994.

Digital remastering[edit]

Technical faults in the majority of her original gramophone recordings (especially variations in recording speed, which raised or lowered the apparent pitch of her voice) misrepresented the "light and shade" of her phrasing, interpretation and delivery. They altered the apparent key of her performances (sometimes raised or lowered by as much as a semitone). The "centre hole" in some of the master recordings had not been in the true middle of the master disc, so that there were wide variations in tone, pitch, key and phrasing, as commercially released records revolved around the spindle.

Given those historic limitations, the current digitally remastered versions of her work deliver significant improvements in the sound quality of Smith's performances. Some critics believe that the American Columbia Records compact disc releases are somewhat inferior to subsequent transfers made by the late John R. T. Davies for Frog Records.[38]

In popular culture[edit]

  • The popular musical Bessie: The Life & Music of Bessie Smith, by the playwright Douglas M. Parker, follows Smith's rise, personal life and career, incorporating many of the songs that made her famous.
  • The Death of Bessie Smith by Edward Albee also deals with her.
  • The 1948 short story "Blue Melody", by J. D. Salinger, and the 1959 play The Death of Bessie Smith, by Edward Albee, are based on Smith's life and death, but poetic license was taken by both authors; for instance, Albee's play distorts the circumstances of her medical treatment, or lack of it, before her death, attributing it to racist medical practitioners.[citation needed]
  • Bessie's Back in Town, a musical in production by Barry Edelson, presents as accurately as possible aspects of her life and death, while remaining true to her music.[39]
  • The song Bessie, sung by Patricia Kaas on the 1990 album Scène de vie, is about Smith's death.
  • The playwright Angelo Parra wrote the 2001 musical The Devil's Music: The Life and Blues of Bessie Smith, with Miche Braden in the title role.
  • In the video game series BioShock (1 and 2), Smith is portrayed as a cameo of a character by the name of Grace Holloway. Smith's music can be heard during the loading screen and in the level Paupers Drop, and in the various hallways and rooms of the sunken city. Her 1929 song "I'm Wild About That Thing" is (anachronistically) included in the sequel, BioShock: Infinite, set in 1912.
  • HBO released a movie about Smith, Bessie, starring Queen Latifah, on May 16, 2015.[40]
  • "Bessie Smith", a song by the Band, is about her.[41]
  • Each June, the Bessie Smith Cultural Center in Chattanooga sponsors the Bessie Smith Strut as part of the city's Riverbend Festival.[42][43]
  • The NBC show Timeless features Bessie Smith briefly in the season 2 episode "The King of the Delta Blues".
  • Her 1933 recording "Take Me for a Buggy Ride" was featured prominently in the 1981 film Rich and Famous.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Joel Whitburn's methodology for creating pre-1940s chart positions has been criticised,[32] and those listed here should not be taken as definitive.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jasen, David A.; Jones, Gene (September 1998). Spreadin' Rhythm Around: Black Popular Songwriters, 1880–1930. New York City: Schirmer Books. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-02-864742-5.
  2. ^ "Bessie Smith: Controversy". SparkNotes. October 4, 1937. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
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  5. ^ 1910 US Census, Chattanooga, Hamilton, Tennessee, Ward 7, Enumeration District 0065, Sheet 2B, Family No. 48.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Albertson, Chris (1991). Liner notes, Bessie Smith: The Complete Recordings, Volumes 1–5. Sony Music Entertainment.
  • Albertson, Chris (2003). Bessie (rev. and expanded ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09902-9.
  • Barnet, Andrea (2004). All-Night Party: The Women of Bohemian Greenwich Village and Harlem, 1913–1930. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Algonquin Books. ISBN 978-1-56512-381-6.
  • Brooks, Edward (1982). The Bessie Smith Companion: A Critical and Detailed Appreciation of the Recordings. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-76202-1.
  • Davis, Angela Y. (1998). Blues Legacies and Black Feminism: Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Billie Holiday. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-679-45005-X.
  • Eberhardt, Clifford (1994). Out of Chattanooga. Chattanooga: Ebco.
  • Feinstein, Elaine (1985). Bessie Smith. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-80642-0.
  • Grimes, Sara (2000). Backwaterblues: In Search of Bessie Smith. Amherst, Massachusetts: Rose Island. ISBN 0-9707089-0-4.
  • Kay, Jackie (1997). Bessie Smith. New York: Absolute. ISBN 1-899791-55-8.
  • Manera, Alexandria (2003). Bessie Smith. Chicago: Raintree. ISBN 0-7398-6875-6.
  • Martin, Florence (1994). Bessie Smith. Paris: Editions du Limon. ISBN 2-907224-31-X.
  • Oliver, Paul (1959). Bessie Smith. London: Cassell.
  • Palmer, Tony (1976). All You Need is Love: The Story of Popular Music. New York: Grossman Publishers, Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-11448-0.
  • Schuller, Gunther (1968). Early Jazz, Its Roots and Musical Development. Vol. 1. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504043-0 (paperback).
  • Scott, Michelle R. (2008). Blue Empress: Bessie Smith and the Emerging Urban South in Black Chattanooga. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252075455.
  • Welding, Pete; Byron, Tony (eds.) (1991). Bluesland: Portraits of Twelve Major American Blues Masters. New York: Dutton. ISBN 0-525-93375-1.

External links[edit]